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Studien zur Musikwissenschaft. Die Musikforschung. Fontes artis musicae. Musical Quarterly. Hanover, Bibliothek des Kestner-Museums. Musical Times. Green Library. Copenhagen, Kongelige Bibliotek. Metten, Abtei, Bibliothek. Leeds, University of Leeds, Brotherton Library. Proceedings of the Musical Association. London, British Library. Chicago, Newberry Library. New York, Pierpont Morgan Library. Revue de musicologie. Deutsches Jahrbuch der Musikwissenschaft. Milan, Biblioteca Teatrale Livia Simoni.
Oxford, Bodleian Library. Zwickau, Robert-Schumann-Haus. Only the opus numbers 1 to 72 were assigned by Mendelssohn, the later ones by publishers; the opus number sequence does not therefore always accord with the order of composition. Mendelssohn composed several chorale cantatas , several on Lutheran hymns :. A cappella A cappella music is group or solo singing without instrumental accompaniment, or a piece intended to be performed in this way. It contrasts with cantata , accompanied singing; the term "a cappella" was intended to differentiate between Renaissance polyphony and Baroque concertato style.
In the 19th century a renewed interest in Renaissance polyphony coupled with an ignorance of the fact that vocal parts were doubled by instrumentalists led to the term coming to mean unaccompanied vocal music; the term is used, albeit as a synonym for alla breve. A cappella music was used in religious music church music as well as anasheed and zemirot.
Gregorian chant is an example of a cappella singing, as is the majority of secular vocal music from the Renaissance; the madrigal , up until its development in the early Baroque into an instrumentally-accompanied form, is usually in a cappella form. Jewish and Christian music were a cappella, this practice has continued in both of these religions as well as in Islam.
The polyphony of Christian a cappella music began to develop in Europe around the late 15th century AD, with compositions by Josquin des Prez.
The early a cappella polyphonies may have had an accompanying instrument, although this instrument would double the singers' parts and was not independent. By the 16th century, a cappella polyphony had further developed, but the cantata began to take the place of a cappella forms. Recent evidence has shown that some of the early pieces by Palestrina , such as what was written for the Sistine Chapel was intended to be accompanied by an organ "doubling" some or all of the voices; such is seen in the life of Palestrina becoming a major influence on Bach, most notably in the Mass in B Minor.
Other composers that utilized the a cappella style, if only for the occasional piece, were Claudio Monteverdi and his masterpiece, Lagrime d'amante al sepolcro dell'amata, composed in , Andrea Gabrieli when upon his death it was discovered many choral pieces, one of, in the unaccompanied style. Five of Schutz's Historien were Easter pieces, of these the latter three, which dealt with the passion from three different viewpoints, those of Matthew and John, were all done a cappella style; this was a near requirement for this type of piece, the parts of the crowd were sung while the solo parts which were the quoted parts from either Christ or the authors were performed in a plainchant.
In the Byzantine Rite of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches , the music performed in the liturgies is sung without instrumental accompaniment. Bishop Kallistos Ware says, "The service is sung though there may be no choir In the Orthodox Church today, as in the early Church, singing is unaccompanied and instrumental music is not found.
This a cappella behavior arises from strict interpretation of Psalms , which states, Let every thing that hath breath praise the Lord. Praise ye the Lord. Certain high church services and other musical events in liturgical churches may be a cappella, a practice remaining from apostolic times.
Many Mennonites conduct some or all of their services without instruments. Sacred Harp , a type of folk music, is an a cappella style of religious singing with shape notes sung at singing conventions. Opponents of musical instruments in the Christian worship believe that such opposition is supported by the Christian scriptures and Church history; the scriptures referenced are Matthew There is no reference to instrumental music in early church worship in the New Testament , or in the worship of churches for the first six centuries.
Several reasons have been posited throughout church history for the absence of instrumental music in church worship. Christians who believe in a cappella music today believe that in the Israelite worship assembly during Temple worship only the Priests of Levi sang and offered animal sacrifices, whereas in the church era, all Christians are commanded to sing praises to God.
Childe was born in Poole and first appears as an exhibitor in the Royal Academy in In that year he was residing at Soho with his older brother Elias Childe, he was the brother of magic lantern maker Henry Langdon Childe. His first exhibited works were landscapes, chiefly taken from the immediate neighborhood, he first appears as a miniature painter in , seems to have thenceforth adopted that particular line exclusively.
From that year to he was a constant exhibitor of miniatures at the Royal Academy, at the Suffolk Street gallery.
Records International Catalogue January
Childe resided the greater part of his life at 39 Bedford Street, Covent Garden , died at Searsdale Terrace, Kensington , on 19 September , aged His middle name has been listed as Wearing, Wearin or Waring. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Cust, Lionel Henry.
In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography.
Songs No.1-8, 10-11
James Warren Childe at artnet. Many are linked to the name of David; the Book of Psalms is divided into five sections, each closing with a doxology —these divisions were introduced by the final editors to imitate the five-fold division of the Torah : Book 1 Book 2 Book 3 Book 4 Book 5 Many psalms have individual superscriptions, ranging from lengthy comments to a single word. Over a third appear to be musical directions, addressed to the "leader" or " choirmaster ", including such statements as "with stringed instruments" and "according to lilies".
Others appear to be references to types of musical composition, such as "A psalm" and "Song", or directions regarding the occasion for using the psalm. Many carry the names of individuals, the most common being of David, thirteen of these relate explicitly to incidents in the king's life. Psalms are identified by a sequence number preceded by the abbreviation "Ps. Protestant translations use the Hebrew numbering, but other Christian traditions vary: Catholic official liturgical texts follow the Hebrew numbering since ; the variance between Massorah and Septuagint texts in this numeration is enough due to a gradual neglect of the original poetic form of the Psalms.
It is admitted that Pss. The Hebrew text is correct in counting as one Ps. Liturgical usage would seem to have split up these and several other psalms. Zenner combines into. A choral ode would seem to have been the original form of Pss. The two strophes and the epode are Ps. It is noteworthy that, on the breaking up of the original ode, each portion crept twice into the Psalter : Ps.
Other such duplicated portions of psalms are Ps.